Presentation for Transforming Station project
Introduction of the Project:
After The Industrial Revolution in the late 18th Century, the world has suffered from pollution, despite the fact that pollution was caused by natural phenomena (volcanic eruptions…), Mankind is to blame for much of the activities.
There are two polluting materials:
1. Degradable pollutants.
2. Non-degradable pollutants.
And the worst one is the Non-degradable pollutants. This is because they consist of materials that either, do not decompose, or decompose slowly in the natural environment.
Civilization is facing this difficult challenge to solve this problem (either by getting rid of them clearly or recycling them).
Allusions about Petroleum Pollution:
All petroleum materials are considered a cause of permanent tension after becoming waste. This is due, because of the difficulty to find a way to get rid of these wastes; Most of the countries around the world had ways of disposing of these wastes without affecting the natural atmosphere. This was done by either treating or by recycling.
These materials are a real source of pollution for the environment. This is because of their non-degradable property, or because of the long period of time it takes to be degraded. Their chemical and poisonous compounds affect the soil, the plant, the animals … as well as man, especially if they entered his stomach.
The used oil is the most important of petroleum products in polluting the environment. These are the wastes created from cars, trucks, industrial machines, generators … and engines. These wastes are being thrown into sewages, which make their way to the rivers, seas and oceans. The after affect of these materials are very dangerous to marine life and nature in general.
It is difficult to confine the quantity of the polluting oils. This is because we don't have enough information to support the scientific theories. It is evaluated, that the thrown quantities of the oils in the seas are averaged between 600 thousand to 3 million tons per year. Researchers confirmed that one third of the global pollution is caused by the sewages of the countries.
Tires are also a big problem for the environment; where as most discarded tires were destined to be burned, assisting in alleviating an unending energy crisis. However, if a tire fire occurs, tires break down into hazardous compounds including gases, heavy metals, and oil.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reports 290 million scrap tires were generated in 2003, ( 50% to landfill sites and dumps, 40% incinerated, 10% recycled ).
Plastic is another example of Non-degradable pollutants. It has become a popular material used in a wide variety of ways. It is used because they are easy and cheap to make and they can last a long time. Unfortunately these same useful qualities can make plastic a huge pollution problem, because plastic does not decompose, and requires high energy ultra-violet light to break down.
The amount of plastic waste in our oceans is steadily increasing. This plastic can affect marine wildlife in two important ways: by entangling creatures, and by being eaten.
The Purpose of the Project:
Treating the following materials:
- Hydro-carbonic wastes (Consumed oils).
- Consumed Industrial polymers (plastic, Polyethylene… and PET).
- Consumed vehicles tires.
- Asphalt (continental sands), oil shale.
- Petroleum wastes.
This is by transforming these into two materials (Benzene, Diesel fuel) and with a percentage ranges from 60 – 90 % from the weight of the original material, and with Universal Standards.
Methodology of work:
Too much of labor was exerted in the former years. Prolonged researches and scientific experiments were done for reaching to solutions for solving these dangers that threat our globe environment.
We have got a diction of work to transform these material (plastic and its derivates, consumed oils, consumed tires ….) to balanced Hydro-carbonic composition. We can control it through Standards. It may be (Benzene, Diesel fuel), This will cost a studied economical expense. We can get a 60 – 90% weight from the original materials (oils and others). As to the other blemishes, we get use of them as fertilizers for the soil. As to the exhausted gases, we can accumulate them or get use of them by a way to transforming.
Properties of the Products:
The gained product is a balanced material. Scientifically, It is not disjointed material. This is because the carbon atoms are connected with the hydrogen ones. The fourth equivalence appears on the carbon. The results of the research samples will appear that the out coming fuel is according to the Universal Standards. It has an advantage, which it lacks to the pollutants that effect the environment, in addition to its integrated combustion.
We can notify by the comparison table between the out-coming Benzene by our project and the out-coming Benzene by the raw petroleum. This is by the direct distillation.
Benzene by our project Benzene by the raw petroleum
Number of Octane From 27 to 90 From 60 to 63
Percentage of benzene from the raw materials 70 % and over 35% of the raw petroleum
The specific weight with 60˚ degree 0.722 0.7175
Ignition temperature 18 7.4
Boiling temperature 43 45
TESTS METHOD RESULTS
COPPER CORROSION, 2 HRS. @ 122˚F ASTM D-130 3 C
DINSITY @ 15˚C ASTM D-4052 0.7298
OCTANE NUMBER RESEARCH ASTM D-2699 82.6
LEAD, ppb, Wt. IP - 224 175
SULFUR, Wt. % ASTM D-4924 0.213
DOCTOR TEST ASTM D-4952 Positive
GUM WASHED, mg/ 100ml ASTM D-381 7
GUM UNWASHED, mg/ 100ml ASTM D-381 7
POTENTIAL GUM UNWASHED, 8 HRS. , mg/ 100ml ASTM D-873 347
TOTAL PARAFFINS (C3-C14) Vol. % ASTM D-6730 60.36
NAPHTHENES, Vol. % ASTM D-6730 11.73
OLEFINS, Vol. % ASTM D-6730 14.18
AROMATICS, Vol. % ASTM D-6730 11.08
C 14 + UNKNOWNS, Vol. % ASTM D-6730 2.53
VAPOUR PRESSURE (DVPE), psi ASTM D-5191 10.23
OXIDATION STABILITY @ 212˚F, minutes ASTM D-525 180
TESTS METHOD RESULTS
COPPER CORROSION, 2 HRS. @ 122˚F ASTM D-130 2 C
DINSITY @ 15˚C ASTM D-4052 0.8097
OCTANE NUMBER RESEARCH ASTM D-2699 99.1
LEAD, ppb, Wt. IP - 224 LT10
SULFUR, Wt. % ASTM D-4924 0.034
DOCTOR TEST ASTM D-4952 Negative
GUM WASHED, mg/ 100ml ASTM D-381 6
GUM UNWASHED, mg/ 100ml ASTM D-381 15
POTENTIAL GUM UNWASHED, 8 HRS. , mg/ 100ml ASTM D-873 108
TOTAL PARAFFINS (C3-C14) Vol. % ASTM D-6730 15.47
NAPHTHENES, Vol. % ASTM D-6730 37.03
OLEFINS, Vol. % ASTM D-6730 15.50
AROMATICS, Vol. % ASTM D-6730 30.52
C 14 + UNKNOWNS, Vol. % ASTM D-6730 1.26
VAPOUR PRESSURE (DVPE), psi ASTM D-5191 6.28
OXIDATION STABILITY @ 212˚F, minutes ASTM D-525 >480
TESTS METHOD RESULTS
COPPER CORROSION, 2 HRS. @ 122˚F ASTM D-130 4 C
DINSITY @ 15˚C ASTM D-4052 0.7388
OCTANE NUMBER RESEARCH ASTM D-2699 56.6
LEAD, ppb, Wt. IP - 224 47
SULFUR, Wt. % ASTM D-4924 0.101
DOCTOR TEST ASTM D-4952 Positive
GUM WASHED, mg/ 100ml ASTM D-381 3
GUM UNWASHED, mg/ 100ml ASTM D-381 5
POTENTIAL GUM UNWASHED, 8 HRS. , mg/ 100ml ASTM D-873 677
TOTAL PARAFFINS (C3-C14) Vol. % ASTM D-6730 47.27
NAPHTHENES, Vol. % ASTM D-6730 7.89
OLEFINS, Vol. % ASTM D-6730 25.72
AROMATICS, Vol. % ASTM D-6730 18.37
C 14 + UNKNOWNS, Vol. % ASTM D-6730 0.56
VAPOUR PRESSURE (DVPE), psi ASTM D-5191 4.25
OXIDATION STABILITY @ 212˚F, minutes ASTM D-525 150
The Transforming Station:
The station that we intended to build will produce (10-15) thousand barrels daily. The expenses reaches to 10% of the real cost of a petroleum refinery that produces the same quantity. It is also the area that takes will be 10% of the area of the refinery. We can build it next to the petroleum wells and next to the coastal Landfill.
We made researches that asserted the possibility of building such stations upon the ships. So, it is possible to transform the wastes to fuel through its wandering.
The Thrown Wastes:
The most important of this research is the out-coming blemishes (from the transforming operation). It is mostly eliminated and meanwhile it doesn't have any danger upon the environment. Its quantity ranges from 10% to 30% from the raw materials.
Primitively, we reached to a diction by which we can extract the sulfur and sediment it. In this way we guarantee of the sulfur not to be ejected as a gas (causes the acid rain when it reaches the atmosphere). Meanwhile, we get rid of the corrosion of the heaters.
We can also transfer Nitrogen to ammonia. We amend the acidulous property to the used materials.
As to the minerals, like arsenic, lead, copper,.. , we get rid of them by sedimentation.
As to waters, it is being exhausted with the gases, and we get rid of the chlorine by treating it.
As to out-coming gases, we can accumulate them in a special diction. We get use of them by the combustion. This involves in the economical study of the project.
Consequently, we get a fuel with no damaging effects at water, soil and air.
As a conclusion, we find this project gathering big labors to be obtained. This is to obtain a benefit and positive influences at the globe environment.
The idea of getting rid of all the petroleum wastes is an old on. And also getting an environmental fuel that doesn't pollute nature is the purpose of all the nations. So, this project is the way to obtain all these purposes, to protect humankind, nature, soil, air, water ... and environment in general.